Richa Madaan

Author
Richa Madaan

ELISA Test Kit – How Public Health Workers Use and Benefit from Them

  Jan 16, 2024
Reviewed by Ravinder Kaur

An ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit is a laboratory kit used to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. The kit typically contains pre-coated microplates or strips, reagents, and controls. The microplates or strips are coated with a specific antigen or antibody, which binds to the corresponding antibody or antigen in the test sample.

The test is performed by adding the sample to the microplate or strip and then adding a detection reagent that binds to the antigen or antibody complex. The detection reagent typically contains an enzyme that reacts with a substrate to produce a measurable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence.

Research and clinical laboratories commonly use ELISA test kits for detecting various biological molecules, including hormones, proteins, and viruses for diagnosing infectious diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and more recently, COVID-19. According to News Medical, ELISA kits also find use in the detection of cancer biomarkers and autoimmune diseases.

Benefits of Using ELISA Kits for Coronavirus Detection

The primary function of an ELISA kit is to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood sample of a person infected by a coronavirus. The use of ELISA kits provides public health professionals with multiple benefits in pandemic management:

  • Diagnosis: Caregivers and health officials can use ELISA kits to detect the presence of coronavirus infection in patients regardless of whether they display any symptoms or not. The kit provides an accurate diagnosis, even if the symptoms are mild or absent. The sensitivity of ELISA kits permits early diagnosis of COVID-19 to help isolate the patient and commence appropriate treatment.
  • Monitoring: Public health officials can use Custom ELISA KIT Production to monitor the incidence of diseases like COVID-19 and hepatitis in the population. By tracking the spread of the disease, they can develop plans to control it.
  • Assessing immunity: Scientists and public health officials can use ELISA kits to evaluate how well a patient’s immune system responds to the coronavirus to know more about the extent of immunity in the general population. In addition to statistical surveys, the assessment helps them understand the effectiveness of vaccination programs.
  • Research: Scientists use ELISA kits to a large extent to conduct research studies on the immune response of patients to the coronavirus to help them develop new lines of treatment and vaccines.
  • Non-COVID-19 applications: It is not as if scientists use ELISA kits only for COVID-19 detection and surveillance. These kits find widespread and economical use in the detection of platelet antibodies to diagnose patients suffering from ailments like systemic lupus erythematosus. The ELISA test is more accurate and reliable than other tests like the platelet immunofluorescence test or the lymphocytotoxicity test. ELISA test kits are also popularly used by health professionals in developing countries to detect viruses causing various diseases like West Nile Virus, HIV, and Newcastle Disease Virus.

Types Of ELISA

ELISA can be grouped into three principal types. Sandwich, Aberrant, and Cutthroat.

Sandwich ELISA

Initially, a ‘catch’ neutralizer is bound to a well. Then, at that point, after the expansion of the example, just the proteins perceived by the immunizer are ‘caught’. At long last, the discovery of the bound protein is done utilizing a second location neutralizer.

The discovery and catch antibodies are otherwise called the matched immunizer coordinates or matched matches. Eventually, the identification immunizer is recognized utilizing compound-marked auxiliary antibodies.

Aberrant ELISA

In this kind of ELISA, the protein test is straightforwardly bound to the well through assimilation. Then, the presence of proteins in the example is distinguished utilizing an immune response, known as an antigen. In this kind, responsiveness is expanded because of various embodiments in every essential immunizer that permit signal enhancement.

Cutthroat ELISA

Here, the presence of an essential immune response is delivered with the example bringing about a complex. At the point when the perplexing settles down, an optional neutralizer is added to the wells. The essential immunizer is perceived provided that the antigen isn’t bound to it. Consequently, the auxiliary immune response supposedly competes with the antigen. In this kind of ELISA, the protein test is straightforwardly bound to the well through assimilation. Then, the presence of proteins in the example is distinguished utilizing an immune response, known as an antigen. In this kind, responsiveness is expanded because of various embodiments in every essential immunizer that permit signal enhancement.

Conclusion 

As one can appreciate, ELISA test kits find diverse applications in the management and control of coronavirus and various other diseases. ELISA kits find favor for their accuracy, quick results, and for being relatively cheaper than other methods of detection. Effective deployment of ELISA kits enables public health workers to identify infected populations and devise strategies for more effective infection containment.




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